base sas

9月 072020
 

Locale-specific SAS® format catalogs make reporting in multiple languages more dynamic. It is easy to generate reports in different languages when you use both the LOCALE option in the FORMAT procedure and the LOCALE= system option to create these catalogs. If you are not familiar with the LOCALE= system option, see the "Resources" section below for more information.

This blog post, inspired by my work on this topic with a SAS customer, focuses on how to create and use locale-specific informats to read in numeric values from a Microsoft Excel file and then transform them into SAS character values. I incorporated this step into a macro that transforms ones and zeroes from the Excel file into meaningful information for multilingual readers.

Getting started: Creating the informats

The first step is to submit the LOCALE= system option with the value fr_FR. For the example in this article, I chose the values fr_FR and en_US for French and English from this table of LOCALE= values. (That is because I know how to say “yes” and “no” in both English and French — I need to travel more!)

   options locale=fr_fr;

The following code uses both the INVALUE statement and the LOCALE option in PROC FORMAT to create an informat that is named $PT_SURVEY:

   proc format locale library=work;
      invalue $pt_survey 1='oui' 0='non'; run;

Now, toggle the LOCALE= system option and create a second informat using labels in a different language (in this example, it is English):
options locale=en_us;

   proc format locale library=work;
      invalue $pt_survey 1='yes' 0='no';
   run;

In the screenshot below, which shows the output from the DATASETS procedure, you can see that PROC FORMAT created two format catalogs using the specified locale values, which are preceded by underscore characters. If the format catalogs already exist, PROC FORMAT simply adds the $PT_SURVEY informat entry type to them.

   proc datasets memtype=catalog; 
   quit;

Before you use these informats for a report, you must tell SAS where the informats are located. To do so, specify /LOCALE after the libref name within the FMTSEARCH= system option. If you do not add the /LOCALE specification, you see an error message stating either that the $PT_SURVEY informat does not exist or that it cannot be found. In the next two OPTIONS statements, SAS searches for the locale-specific informat in the FORMATS_FR_FR catalog, which PROC FORMAT created in the WORK library:

   options locale=fr_fr;
   options fmtsearch=(work/locale);

If you toggle the LOCALE= system option to have the en_US locale value, SAS then searches for the informat in the other catalog that was created, which is the FORMATS_EN_US catalog.

Creating the Excel file for this example

For this example, you can create an Excel file by using the ODS EXCEL destination from the REPORT procedure output. Although you can create the Excel file in various ways, the reason that I chose the ODS EXCEL statement was to show you some options that can be helpful in this scenario and are also useful at other times.
Use the ODS EXCEL destination to create a file from PROC REPORT. I specify the TAGATTR= style attribute using “TYPE:NUMBER” for the Q_1 variable:

   %let  path=%sysfunc(getoption(WORK));
   filename temp "&path\surveys.xlsx"; 
   ods excel file=temp;
 
 
   data one;
      infile datalines truncover;
      input ptID Q_1;
      datalines;
   111 0
   112 1
   ;
   run;
 
   proc report data=one;
      define ptID / display style(column)={tagattr="type:String"};
      define Q_1 / style(column)={tagattr="type:Number"};
   run;
 
   ods excel close;

Now you have a file that looks like this screenshot when it is opened in Excel. Note that the data value for the Q_1 column is numeric:

The IMPORT procedure uses the DBSASTYPE= data set option to convert the numeric Excel data into SAS character values. Then I can apply the locale-specific character informat to a character variable.

As you will see below, in the macro, I use DBMS=EXCEL in PROC IMPORT to read the Excel file because my SAS and Microsoft Office versions are both 64-bit. (You might have to use the PCFILES LIBNAME Engine to connect to Excel through the SAS PC Files Server if you are not set up this way.)

Using the informats in a macro to create the multilingual reports

The final step is to run the macro with parameters to produce the two reports in French and English, using the locale-specific catalogs. When the macro is called, depending on the parameter value for the macro variable LOCALE, the LOCALE= system option changes, and the $PT_SURVEY informat from the locale-specific catalog is applied. These two tabular reports are produced:

Here is the full code for the example:

   %let  path=%sysfunc(getoption(WORK));
   filename temp "&path\surveys.xlsx";
   ods excel file=temp;
 
   data one;
      infile datalines truncover;
      input ptID Q_1;
      datalines;
   111 0
   112 1
   ;
   run;
 
   proc report data=one;
      define ptID / display style(column)={tagattr="type:String"};
      define Q_1 / style(column)={tagattr="type:Number"};
   run;
 
   ods excel close;
   options locale=fr_fr;
 
   proc format locale library=work;
      invalue $pt_survey 1='oui' 0='non';
   run;
 
   options locale=en_us;
 
   proc format locale library=work;
      invalue $pt_survey 1='yes' 0='no';
   run;
 
   /* Set the FMTSEARCH option */
   options fmtsearch=(work/locale);
 
   /* Compile the macro */
   %macro survey(locale,out);
      /* Set the LOCALE system option */
      options locale=&locale;
 
      /* Import the Excel file  */
      filename survey "&path\surveys.xlsx";
 
      proc import dbms=excel datafile=survey out=work.&out replace;
         getnames=yes;
         dbdsopts="dbsastype=(Q_1='char(8)')";
      run;
 
      data work.&out;
         set work.&out;
 
         /* Create a new variable for the report whose values are assigned by specifying the locale-specific informat in the INPUT function */
         newvar=input(Q_1, $pt_survey.);
         label newvar='Q_1';
      run;
 
      options missing='0';
 
      /*  Create the tabular report */
      proc tabulate data=&out;
         class ptID newvar;
 
         table ptID='Patient ID', newvar*n=' '/box="&locale";
      run;
 
   %mend survey;
 
   /* Call the macros */
   %survey(fr_fr,fr)
   %survey(en_us,en)

For a different example that does not involve an informat, you can create a format in a locale-specific catalog to print a data set in both English and Romanian. See Example 19: Creating a Locale-Specific Format Catalog in the Base SAS® 9.4 Procedures Guide.

Resources

For more information about the LOCALE option:

For more information about reading and writing Excel files:

For more information about creating macros and using the macro facility in SAS:

Using locale-specific format catalogs to create reports in multiple languages was published on SAS Users.

9月 022020
 

SAS offering free learning resources in celebration of programmers

For more than 40 years, SAS programmers have crafted software and solutions that transform the world. From statistics to data science, to analytics and artificial intelligence, people writing code have architected a new economy with incredible opportunities. SAS Programmer Week honors those people by offering free learning resources available for everyone, from students to early career professionals to SAS veterans.

Running from Sept. 7-11, SAS Programmer Week leads up to the international Day of the Programmer on Saturday, Sept. 12. Training resources will be available for free through a variety of YouTube and video tutorials, webinars, blogs and documentation.

There will be three different tracks for new, experienced and analytics-focused users, with new content released each day. The week culminates with SAS certification prep content that will have participants ready to pursue a valuable SAS credential.

For instance, Tech Republic named SAS as one of 7 data science certifications to boost your resume and salary. CIO Magazine puts SAS among the top 11 big data and analytics certifications for 2020.

Since SAS programmers are busy and may not have all day to engage with the materials, SAS Programmer Week is flexible. Participants can access the material when they want to learn a specific skill related to the day’s topic or consume the material in snippets when they have time.

Interested participants can visit the SAS Programmer Week website to register today, preview the materials and schedule, and jump-start their career journeys.

 

All hail the SAS programmer! was published on SAS Users.

6月 262019
 

"There's a way to do it better - find it." - Thomas A. Edison

Finding a better SAS code

When it comes to SAS coding, this quote by Thomas A. Edison is my best advisor. Time permitting, I love finding better ways of implementing SAS code.

But what code feature means “better” – brevity, clarity or efficiency? It all depends on the purpose of your code. When code is to illustrate a coding concept or technique, clarity is a paramount. However, when processing large data volumes in near real-time, code efficiency becomes critical, not just a luxury or convenience. And brevity won’t hurt in either case. Ideally, your code should be a combination of all three features - brevity, clarity and efficiency.

Parsing a character string

In this blog post we will solve a problem of parsing a character string to find a position of n-th occurrence of a group of characters (substring) in that string.

The closest out-of-box solution to this problem is SAS’ FIND() function. Except this function searches only for a single/first instance of specified substring of characters within a character string. Close enough, and with some do-looping we can easily construct what we want.

After some internet and soul searching to find the Nth occurrence of a substring within a string, I came up with the following DATA STEP code snippet:

   p = 0;
   do i=1 to n until(p=0); 
      p = find(s, x, p+1);
   end;

Here, s is a text string (character variable) to be parsed; x is a character variable holding a group of characters that we are searching for within s; p is a position of x value found within s; n is an instance number.

If there is no n-th instance of x within s found, then the code returns p=0.

In this code, each do-loop iteration searches for x within s starting from position p+1 where p is position found in prior iteration: p = find(s,x,p+1);.

Notice, if there is no prior-to n instance of x within s, the do-loop ends prematurely, based on until(p=0) condition, thus cutting the number of loops to the minimal necessary.

Reverse string search

Since find() function allows for a string search in a reverse direction (from right to left) by making the third augment negative, the above code snippet can be easily modified to do just that: find Nth instance (from right to left) of a group of characters within a string. Here is how you can do that:

   p = length(s) + 1;
   do i=1 to n until(p=0); 
      p = find(s, x, -p+1);
   end;

The difference here is that we start from position length(s)+1 instead of 0, and each iteration searches substring x within string s starting from position –(p-1)=-p+1 from right to left.

Testing SAS code

You can run the following SAS code to test and see how these searches work:

data a;
   s='AB bhdf +BA s Ab fs ABC Nfm AB ';
   x='AB';
   n=3;
 
   /* from left to right */
   p = 0;
   do i=1 to n until(p=0); 
      p = find(s, x, p+1);
   end;
   put p=;
 
   /* from right to left */
   p = length(s) + 1;
   do i=1 to n until(p=0); 
      p = find(s, x, -p+1);
   end;
   put p=;
run;

FINDNTH() function

We can also combine the above left-to-right and right-to-left searches into a single user-defined SAS function by means of SAS Function Compiler (PROC FCMP) procedure:

proc fcmp outlib=sasuser.functions.findnth;
   function findnth(str $, sub $, n);
      p = ifn(n>=0,0,length(str)+1);
      do i=1 to abs(n) until(p=0);
         p = find(str,sub,sign(n)*p+1);
      end;
      return (p);
   endsub;
run;

We conveniently named it findnth() to match the Tableau FINDNTH(string, substring, occurrence) function that returns the position of the nth occurrence of substring within the specified string, where the occurrence argument defines n.

Except our findnth() function allows for both, positive (for left-to-right searches) as well as negative (for right-to-left searches) third argument while Tableau’s function only allows for left-to-right searches.

Here is an example of the findnth() function usage:

options cmplib=sasuser.functions;
data a;
   s='AB bhdf +BA s Ab fs ABC Nfm AB ';
   x='AB';
   n=3;
 
   /* from left to right */
   p=findnth(s,x,n);
   put p=;
 
   /* from right to left */
   p=findnth(s,x,-n);
   put p=;
run;

Using Perl regular expression

As an alternative solution I also implemented SAS code for finding n-th occurrence of a substring within a string using Perl regular expression (regex or prx):

data a;
   s='AB bhdf +BA s Ab fs ABC Nfm AB ';
   x='AB';
   n=3;
 
   /* using regex */
   xid = prxparse('/'||x||'/o');
   p = 0;
   do i=1 to n until(p=0);
      from = p + 1;
      call prxnext(xid, p + 1, length(s), s, p, len);
   end;
   put p=;
run;

However, efficiency benchmarking tests demonstrated that the above solutions using FIND() function or FINDNTH() SAS user-written function run roughly twice faster than this regex solution.

Challenge

Can you come up with an even better solution to the problem of finding Nth instance of a sub-string within a string? Please share your thoughts and solutions with us. Thomas A. Edison would have been proud of you!

Finding n-th instance of a substring within a string was published on SAS Users.

5月 302019
 

Human behavior is fascinating. We come in so many shapes, sizes and backgrounds. Doesn’t it make sense that any tests we write also accommodate our wonderful differences?

This picture is of Miko, a northern rescue and a recent addition to my family. He’s learning to live in an urban household and doing great with some training. He’s going through so many new tests as he adapts to life in the city, which is quite different from being free in the northern territories. Watch for a later post on his training successes.

I’m so happy to share how SAS has been helping candidates by offering a variety of certification credentials geared towards testing for differences and preferences in thought. If you are wondering – I’ve been addicted to psychometrics for a while now, anything human behavior-related interests me. I thought I would begin with sharing some different types of testing roles that I have held in the past.

1. Psychometric testing

Before I joined SAS, I worked at CSI. To answer that unspoken thought dear reader, CSI has been providing financial training and accreditation since 1964 – way before CSI the TV show became popular.

My role as Test Manager was super exciting for someone with a curiosity for analytics and helping people succeed. In a team of four we scored over 200 exams to provide credentials. Psychometrics was the most exciting part of my job analyzing the performance of test takers to constantly innovate our tests. Psychometric tests are used to identify a candidate's skills, knowledge and personality.

2. Multiple-choice testing

While setting multiple choice exam questions, I learned that it was ideal for the four answer choices to be similar in length, and complexity (e.g. if candidates typically chose option A for a question whose right response was B, we would dig deeper to compare the lengths of the options, the language of the options, and then change the option if that was what the review committee agreed upon).

3. Adaptive testing

Prior to CSI, I worked at the test center of Devry Institute of technology. In adaptive testing, the test’s difficulty adapts to candidate performance. A correct response leads into a more complex question. On the flip side, an incorrect response leads to an easier next question. So that, eventually, we could help candidates decide which engineering program would be the right skill fit.

This is where I met the student who asked, “can my boyfriend write my exam?”

4. Performance testing

With SAS at the forefront of analytics, it should come as no surprise that certification exams have evolved to the next level. As a certification candidate you can now try out performance-based testing.

A performance test requires a candidate to actually perform a task, rather than simply answering questions. An example is writing SAS code. Instead of answering a knowledge-level multiple choice exam about SAS code, the candidate is asked to actually write code to arrive at answers.

Certification at SAS

SAS Certified Specialist: Base Programming Using SAS 9.4 is great for those who can demonstrate ease in putting into practice the knowledge learned in the Foundation Programming classes 1 and 2. During this performance-based exam, candidates will access a SAS environment. Coding challenges will be presented, and you will need to write and execute SAS code to determine the correct answers to a series of questions.

SAS® Certified Base Programmer for SAS®9 credential remains, but the exam will be retired in June 2019.

While writing this post I came across this on Wikipedia: it shows how the study of adaptive behavior goes back to Darwin’s time. It’s a good read for anyone intrigued by the science and art of testing.

“Charles Darwin was the inspiration behind Sir Francis Galton who led to the creation of psychometrics. In 1859, Darwin published his book The Origin of Species, which pertained to individual differences in animals. This book discussed how individual members in a species differ and how they possess characteristics that are more adaptive and successful or less adaptive and less successful. Those who are adaptive and successful are the ones that survive and give way to the next generation, who would be just as or more adaptive and successful. This idea, studied previously in animals, led to Galton's interest and study of human beings and how they differ one from another, and more importantly, how to measure those differences.”

Are you fascinated by the science and art of human behavior as it relates to testing? Are you as excited as I am about the possibilities of performance-based testing? I would love to hear your comments below.

New at SAS: Psychometric testing was published on SAS Users.

5月 172019
 
Did you know that you can run Lua code within Base SAS? This functionality has been available since the SAS® 9.4M3 (TS1M3) release. With the LUA procedure, you can submit Lua statements from an external Lua script or just submit the Lua statements using SAS code. In this blog, I will discuss what PROC LUA can do as well as show some examples. I will also talk about a package that provides a Lua interface to SAS® Cloud Analytic Services (CAS).

What Is Lua?

Lua is a lightweight, embeddable scripting language. You can use it in many different applications from gaming to web applications. You might already have written Lua code that you would like to run within SAS, and PROC LUA enables you to do so.
With PROC LUA, you can perform these tasks:

  • run Lua code within a SAS session
  • call most SAS functions within Lua statements
  • call functions that are created using the FCMP procedure within Lua statements
  • submit SAS code from Lua
  • Call CAS actions

PROC LUA Examples

Here is a look at the basic syntax for PROC LUA:

proc lua <infile='file-name'> <restart> <terminate>;

Suppose you have a file called my_lua.lua or my_lua.luc that contains Lua statements, and it is in a directory called /local/lua_scripts. You would like to run those Lua statements within a SAS session. You can use PROC LUA along with the INFILE= option and specify the file name that identifies the Lua source file (in this case, it is my_lua). The Lua file name within your directory must contain the .lua or. luc extension, but do not include the extension within the file name for the INFILE= option. A FILENAME statement must be specified with a LUAPATH fileref that points to the location of the Lua file. Then include the Lua file name for the INFILE= option, as shown here:

filename luapath '/local/lua_scripts';
proc lua infile='my_lua';

This example executes the Lua statements contained within the file my_lua.lua or my_lua.luc from the /local/lua_scripts directory.

If there are multiple directories that contain Lua scripts, you can list them all in one FILENAME statement:

filename luapath ('directory1', 'directory2', 'directory3');

The RESTART option resets the state of Lua code submissions for a SAS session. The TERMINATE option stops maintaining the Lua code state in memory and terminates the Lua state when PROC LUA completes.

The syntax above discusses how to run an external Lua script, but you can also run Lua statements directly in SAS code.

Here are a couple of examples that show how to use Lua statements directly inside PROC LUA:

Example 1

   proc lua; 
   submit; 
      local names= {'Mickey', 'Donald', 'Goofy', 'Minnie'} 
      for i,v in ipairs(names) do 
         print(v) 
   end 
   endsubmit; 
   run;

Here is the log output from Example 1:

NOTE: Lua initialized.
Mickey
Donald
Goofy
Minnie
NOTE: PROCEDURE LUA used (Total process time):
      real time           0.38 seconds
      cpu time            0.10 seconds

Example 2

   proc lua;
   submit;
      dirpath=sas.io.assign("c:\\test")
      dir=dirpath:opendir()
      if dir:has("script.txt") then print ("exists")
      else print("doesn't exist")
      end
   endsubmit;
   run;

Example 2 checks to see whether an external file called script.txt exists in the c:\test directory. Notice that two slashes are needed to specify the backslash in the directory path. One backslash would represent an escape character.

All Lua code must be contained between the SUBMIT and ENDSUBMIT statements.

You can also submit SAS code within PROC LUA by calling the SAS.SUBMIT function. The SAS code must be contained within [[ and ]] brackets. Here is an example:

   proc lua; 
   submit;
      sas.submit [[proc print data=sashelp.cars; run; ]]
   endsubmit;
   run;

Using a Lua Interface with CAS

Available to download is a package called SWAT, which stands for SAS Scripting Wrapper for Analytics Transfer. This is a Lua interface for CAS. After you download this package, you can load data into memory and apply CAS actions to transform, summarize, model, and score your data.

The package can be downloaded from this Downloads page: SAS Lua Client Interface for Viya. After you download the SWAT package, there are some requirements for the client machine to use Lua with CAS:

  1. You must use a 64-bit version of either Lua 5.2 or Lua 5.3 on Linux.

    Note: If your deployment requires newer Lua binaries, visit http://luabinaries.sourceforge.net/.
    Note: Some Linux distributions do not include the required shared library libnuma.so.1. It can be installed with the numactl package supplied by your distribution's package manager.

  2. You must install the third-party package dependencies middleclass (4.0+), csv, and ee5_base64, which are all included with a SAS® Viya® installation.

For more information about configuration, see the Readme file that is included with the SWAT download.

I hope this blog post has helped you understand the possible ways of using Lua with SAS. If you have other SAS issues that you would like me to cover in future blog posts, please comment below.

To learn more about PROC LUA, check out these resources:

Using the Lua programming language within Base SAS® was published on SAS Users.

12月 192014
 

SAS Technical Support Problem SolversIf you haven’t tried them for your web applications and other graphics needs, you’ll want to read further!

Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) output is vector graphics output you can display with most (if not all) modern web browsers. Because SVG graphic output is scalable, you can zoom in on the graphics output without losing resolution. Unlike bit-mapped images such as PNG or GIF output, they can be resized or transformed without compromising the clarity, eliminating the need to produce multiple versions of the same image! There are other advantages for using Scalable Vector Graphics like their ability to zoom in to view details, their smaller output file size and their usefulness for producing graphics for a range of display sizes and types.

Which SAS products offer SVG graphics?

The SVG family of device drivers has shipped as part of the SAS/GRAPH product since the SAS 9.2 release. Note that you can only use these SVG device drivers with traditional SAS/GRAPH procedures such as PROC GPLOT and PROC GCHART.

Starting with SAS 9.3 version of the Base product, you can also create SVG output with the SAS SG procedures such as SGPLOT and SGPANEL as well as with graphics output created with ODS Graphics. In SAS 9.4, you can also use Scalable Vector Graphics to produce animations.

Typically, when you create SVG graphics, you will want to create the output in one of these ways:

  • a standalone SVG file with a file extension of .svg
  • an HTML output file using the ODS HTML statement
  • an HTML5 output file in SAS 9.4

The output method you choose depends on your application. If you’re creating standalone SVG files, you can use that SVG file in some other document and make reference to it in another HTML page. For example, a common application for this would be creating logos in SVG that can be sized to any space. If you are using SAS 9.4, the HTML5 method is the best when creating an HTML document because the SVG can be embedded directly and there are no additional files to be moved.

In this blog post I’ll show you how to produce each one of these output types using the Base Product or SAS/GRAPH. I’ve also included a list of sample SAS/GRAPH animations that you can try.

Creating Scalable Vector Graphics with Base SAS

In SAS 9.3 and SAS 9.4, you can specify Scalable Vector Graphics output by specifying the OUTPUTFMT=SVG option on the ODS Graphics statement before the procedure step, such as:

ods graphics on / outputfmt=svg; 

The examples in this sections use the sashelp.cars data set shipped with the SAS 9.3 and SAS 9.4 Base product to produce a bubble plot.

svg_sgplot

Stand-alone SVG file. The following sample code uses PROC SGPLOT to write a standalone SVG file with the name sastest.svg to the C:temp directory when running on the Windows operating system:

    ods _all_ close; 
    ods listing gpath='c:temp';

    ods graphics / reset=all outputfmt=svg imagename='sastest'; 
 
    title1 'Plot of MPG City versus Horsepower';  
    proc sgplot data=sashelp.cars; 
      bubble x=horsepower y=mpg_city size=cylinders;
    run;

HTML file. This code uses the same PROC SGPLOT code to write a SVG file along with a corresponding HTML file to C:temp when running on the Windows operating system:

    ods _all_ close; 
    ods html path='c:temp' (url=none) file='svg.html'; 

    ods graphics / outputfmt=svg; 

    title1 'Plot of MPG City versus Horsepower';  
    proc sgplot data=sashelp.cars; 
      bubble x=horsepower y=mpg_city size=cylinders;
    run;

    ods html close; 
    ods listing; 

HTML 5 file. With SAS 9.4 only, you can use PROC SGPLOT with the ODS HTML5 statement to embed the SVG output in an HTML file. Note that with the code below, the SVG output is embedded inside the HTML output via the use of the svg_mode='inline' option on the ODS HTML5 statement.

    ods _all_ close; 
    ods html5 path='c:temp' (url=none) file='svg.html'
                options(svg_mode='inline');

    ods graphics / outputfmt=svg; 

    title1 'Plot of MPG City versus Horsepower';  
    proc sgplot data=sashelp.cars; 
      bubble x=horsepower y=mpg_city size=cylinders;
    run;

    ods html5 close; 
    ods listing; 

Creating Scalable Vector Graphics with SAS/GRAPH

The examples in this sections use PROC GPLOT and the sashelp.class data set to produce a linear plot of weight versus height.

svg_gplot

Stand-alone SVG file. Here is sample SAS code that uses PROC GPLOT to write a standalone SVG file with the name sastest.svg to the Temp directory on your C: drive when running on the Windows operating system:

    ods _all_ close; 
    ods listing;

    filename grafout 'c:tempsastest.svg'; 

    goptions reset=all device=svg gsfname=grafout;  

    symbol1 i=none v=dot c=black h=1.5;
    axis1 minor=none;  
    title1 'Plot of Weight versus Height';
    proc gplot data=sashelp.class;
      plot weight*height / haxis=axis1 vaxis=axis1;
    run;
    quit;  

HTML file. Here’s how to write the same output to a SVG file along with a corresponding HTML file:

    ods _all_ close; 
    ods html path='c:temp' (url=none) file='svg.html';  

    goptions reset=all device=svg;  

    symbol1 i=none v=dot c=black h=1.5;
    axis1 minor=none;  
    title1 'Plot of Weight versus Height';
    proc gplot data=sashelp.class;
      plot weight*height / haxis=axis1 vaxis=axis1;
    run;
    quit;  

    ods html close; 
    ods listing;

HTML 5 file. With SAS 9.4 only, the following sample code uses PROC GPLOT together with the ODS HTML5 statement to embed the SVG output in the resulting HTML file. Note that with the code below, the SVG output is embedded inside the HTML output via the use of the svg_mode='inline' option on the ODS HTML5 statement.

    ods _all_ close; 
    ods html5 path='c:temp' (url=none) file='svg.html'
               options(svg_mode='inline');   

    goptions reset=all device=svg;  

    symbol1 i=none v=dot c=black h=1.5;
    axis1 minor=none;  
    title1 'Plot of Weight versus Height';
    proc gplot data=sashelp.class;
      plot weight*height / haxis=axis1 vaxis=axis1;
    run;
    quit;  

    ods html5 close; 
    ods listing;  

Using Scalable Vector Graphics for animation in SAS/GRAPH

Beginning with SAS 9.4, you can create animated graphs for the web using the SVG device driver together with new options available on the OPTIONS statement. Here are links to sample programs on support.sas.com that demonstrate how to create animated graphs for the web using the SAS 9.4 SVG device driver:

tags: base sas, HTML5, ods, SAS Problem Solvers, sas/graph, Scalable Vector Graphics
5月 092014
 

It’s an understatement to say there are many Base SAS procedures!

Some procedures may be used for basic report writing. Other procedures may be used to perform statistical analysis. Some have similar functions. Others are unique in the output that they can produce. Which procedure you choose generally depends on the type of output you are trying to generate—with perhaps a bit of personal preference sprinkled into the mix

I often get calls from SAS users who are trying sort through the options and thought a blog post illustrating a few alternatives might help you choose the procedure that’s the best fit for your needs.  Here are a few common choices for calculating frequency, percentages and a few other simple statistics, but you can certainly use other Base SAS procedures or DATA step processing to perform these calculations. I’ve also included a few notes on customizing calculations and output.

It’s helpful to note that Base procedures have specific keywords to refer to statistics. For future reference, you might want to bookmark this table of common procedures and the simple statistics.

Calculating frequency

If you need to generate basic frequency (N) or sum reports, you can use a number of Base procedures.

PROC PRINT allows you to get a frequency count within a BY group and across the entire data set. In addition, PROC PRINT can create summarized values of numeric variables, also within a BY group and for the entire data set.

proc sort data=sashelp.class out=class;                   
by sex;                                                
run;                         
 
proc print data=class noobs                               
     sumlabel='Subtotal' grandtotal_label='Grand Total';   
by sex;                                                
var name age height weight;                            
sum height weight;                                     
run;

PROC REPORT allows for more customized grouping and display of variable values, and it supports the computation of new variables within COMPUTE blocks.

proc report data=sashelp.class nowd;
column sex age height weight bmi;
define sex / group;
define age / group;
define height / sum;
define weight / sum;
define bmi / computed format=8.2;
 
compute bmi;
bmi=(weight.sum/(height.sum)**2)*703;
endcomp;
run;

PROC FREQ is another procedure that outputs basic frequency counts.  This procedure will group like variable values together and return the frequency count for the grouping.  PROC FREQ also has the ability to create an output data set.

proc freq data=sashelp.class;
tables age*sex / out=new outpct;
run;
 
proc print data=new;
run;

If you want to get the distinct count of a variable’s values, you can use PROC FREQ with the NLEVELS option.

proc freq data=sashelp.class nlevels;
tables age;
run;

Calculating percentages

PROC FREQ, by default, outputs percentages for multi-way tables, representing overall, row, and column percents.

proc freq data=sashelp.class;
tables age*sex;
run;

PROC TABULATE outputs comparable percentages using the following statistic keywords:  PCTN, ROWPCTN, and COLPCTN.

proc tabulate data=sashelp.class;
class age sex;
table age*(n pctn rowpctn colpctn) all*(n rowpctn), sex all;
run;

PROC TABULATE has the added ability to generate more advanced denominator definitions.  You will find the SAS Global Forum 2013 paper Tips for Generating Percentages Using the SAS® TABULATE Procedure helpful.

PROC REPORT uses the PCTN statistic to generate a column percentage. Other custom percentages and be computed in PROC REPORT using COMPUTE blocks.

proc report data=sashelp.class nowd;
column age sex,(n pctn);
define age / group;
define sex / across;
define pctn / format=percent8.2 'Col %';
run;

Calculating other statistics

SAS Base procedures MEANS, SUMMARY, REPORT and TABULATE can calculate many statistics as highlighted in the table of common procedures and the simple statistics.

PROC TABULATE and PROC REPORT have a report-friendly tabular structure.

proc tabulate data=sashelp.class;
class age;
var height weight;
table age, (height weight)*(sum mean min max);
run;

PROC SUMMARY or PROC MEANS are recommended if you need to create an output data set for your requested statistics. These two procedures are essentially the same except for a few defaults:

  • PROC SUMMARY does not create printed output by default, but PROC MEANS does.
  • Another difference is if you omit the VAR statement, PROC SUMMARY creates a simple frequency count of observations, but PROC MEANS analyzes all numeric variables that are not listed on other statements.
proc summary data=sashelp.class;
class age;
var height weight;
output out=stats sum= mean= min= max= / autoname;
run;
 
proc print data=stats;
run;

Customizing calculations, summaries and output

If your output needs to include customized summaries using IF/THEN logic, then PROC REPORT is the procedure to choose with its’ COMPUTE blocks and LINE statements.  The SAS Samples below illustrate how to:

Finally, any of these procedures can be customized and output to any destination, including Excel, RTF, PDF and HTML, using the Output Delivery System (ODS).  Here is an example to Demonstrate the use of banding in PROC TABULATE.

tags: base sas, Problem Solvers, SAS Programmers, statistics
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