SAS 9.4

5月 012019
 

In a previous post, I looked at promotion from SAS 9.4 to Viya. In this post, I will look at promotion within SAS Viya. I will look at what can be promoted, the tools that support promotion, and some details about how the process works and what happens to your content. If you are used to promotion using the import export wizards in SAS 9.4, I will point out some of the current differences in promotion within Viya.

Firstly, you must be an Administrator in Viya to be able to export and import content. This is currently (as of Viya 3.4) something that cannot be changed. The two main tools you can use for promoting content between Viya Environments are SAS Environment Manager import/export wizards and the sas-admin command-line interface.

For a lot of Viya content, promotion is supported using the transfer plug-in of the sas-admin command-line interface. The transfer plug-in and SAS Environment Manager both use the transfer service under the covers. This post will focus on the content supported by the transfer service. The list of Viya content supported by the transfer service has increased with each Viya release. The table below shows the supported resources for export by Viya release.


When performing an export/import, the transfer service coordinates the export process and the creation of the package. However, it calls other related services which deal with their specific content. For example, services related to Visual Analytics will deal with reports, and Model Manager with models, etc.

Exporting

The result of the export process is a Viya promotion package, which is a json file containing a collection of transfer objects describing the content that has been exported. The transfer service's package will include the objects you select for export and the following related platform objects:

  • Folders
  • Files
  • Rules
  • Comments

There is no mechanism in Viya, like there was in 9.4, to automatically include all dependent objects in a package. To see what is included in a package, let's look at an example. In this example, we will use a Visual Analytics report, but this could apply to any supported content type.


The report “Sales Correlation” is in the folder /gelcontent/GELCorp/Sales/Reports.

In scenario 1, if we select the report and export it, the package will contain the report and the folders that are included in its path /gelcontent/GELCorp/Sales/Reports. What about authorization settings? Currently, the two interfaces behave slightly differently. The transfer plug-in will always include authorization settings in the package. However, exporting from SAS Environment manager does not include authorization settings. In terms of what authorization is included, directly set authorization are included for objects that are explicitly included in the package. In the export example above, that means we would only get any authorization rules applied directly to the report. To include authorization rules for a folder, we would need to select the folder or one of its parent folders for export.

In scenario 2, if we select the GELCORP folder and do an export, we will get all sub-folders and content below that folder, including any authorization rules applied directly to those objects. In Viya 3.4, you cannot export the complete folder tree. There is no way in the cli or environment manager to select the root of the folder tree. To export the complete folder tree, you need to export each root folder separately. A tool (exportfoldertree.py) has been added to the pyviyatools that can help with this issue. It will loop the folders and export each root folder to a package in a directory.

Importing

Viya content is uniquely identified by its Uniform Resource Identifier (URI). When importing to Viya, objects in the package are matched to objects in the target based on the URI. When matching on URI during an import, if:

  • no match occurs, then a new object is created.
  • a match does occur, then the object is overwritten.

The match on URI is an important concept. It can have some results that you might not expect if you don’t understand it. For example, if a report is renamed, a subsequent import may rename the report back based on the name of the report in the package.

In the example below, a report, identified by the uri /reports/reports/c99s5a2-ccb-4552-b1a5-d8b0e3cb1afo, has been moved to a different folder than the same report in the package being imported.

You might expect in this scenario that a new report will be created in the original folder that the report was moved from. However, since the import matches on URI, the location in the folder structure is not relevant. The report is not added to the folder location stored in the package but is overwritten in its new location. The import process will issue a clear warning that this has happened.

How is authorization dealt with during import? In general, when importing a resource that already exists in the target environment, the authorization settings will be merged with the target resource authorization. During the merge, if the rule (by URI of the rule):

  • already exists, then it may be updated.
  • does not exist, then a rule may be created.

Authorization is not synched during an import, it is a merge. A rule will never be deleted during an import.

Finally, there is some functionality during import that you may be used to in SAS 9.4 that is not available in Viya yet. When importing a package to Viya you cannot:

  • Subset the content from the package during import.
  • Specify a new location in the target folder tree for imported objects.

I hope this helps you gain a better understanding of the features of promotion within SAS Viya and how they work. Here are some related resources that may also help:

Content promotion in Viya: overview and details was published on SAS Users.

12月 212018
 

Good news -- the SAS program that you wrote and put into production 10 years ago still works. Hey, it's SAS, so you probably take that for granted. But are those techniques from 2008 still the best way to accomplish your task? SAS 9.4, first released in 2013 and now refreshed with its sixth maintenance release, continues to extend the SAS programming language. New features allow you to simplify your code, make it run faster, and erase some of that technical debt you've been carrying due to previous workarounds or limitations.

The reason that I'm writing this post now is to recognize the next chapter for my long-time colleague, Rick Langston. After 38 years at SAS (and more time as a SAS user before that) Rick is retiring from his role. Many of you know him as a major steward of the SAS programming language. And many of the tips that I've shared on this blog are made possible by Rick's work. Here's an interview that I hosted with Rick in 2013, just before SAS 9.4 was first released.


Five cool features of the SAS language: the details

In the above video, Rick talks about three SAS features that were first introduced in 2013. I've added a couple of more recent items to the list to round it out.

FILENAME ZIP access method

This brings the ability to read and write compressed ZIP files, and GZIP files, directly into the SAS language. Use this feature to replace the clunky (and not always feasible) calls into external tools such as gzip, WinZip, or 7-Zip. In SAS, a "native" FILENAME access method is more portable and robust than calling out to an external tool with FILENAME PIPE.

For more information, check out the many SAS blog posts with examples that I've shared over the years.

DOSUBL function

Have you ever wanted to run another SAS procedure from inside of a DATA step? Rick calls this "submitting SAS code on the side", as it allows you to run a SAS step or statement from within a currently running step. You can learn more this SAS Global Forum paper by Rick. I've also written a post with a specific example in SAS Enterprise Guide.

LOCKDOWN system option and statement

This one will excite SAS administrators. You can set the LOCKDOWN system option in a batch SAS session or SAS Workspace server to limit some of the "dangerous" functions of SAS and, more importantly, limit the file areas in which the SAS session will operate. Read more in this article, Fencing in your SAS users with LOCKDOWN.

Creating and managing directories within SAS

This technique combines two features into a one-two punch of file folder management. Use the DLCREATEDIR option and the LIBNAME statement to create a new directory, and then use the DLGCDIR function to change the current directory of the SAS session.

In the past, you would have had to issue operating system commands to create a new directory and then switch ('cd') into it. That approach is not portable across different operating systems, and it requires access to the operating system shell -- not available in many SAS sessions these days. See these blog posts for more information and examples about the new techniques:

Using %IF/%THEN/%ELSE in open code

Perhaps the most life-changing of all of these SAS language updates, you can now use simple if-then-else logic for program flow, outside of the confines of the SAS macro language. It's what makes defensive programming like this possible -- without having to wrap the logic in %MACRO/%MEND:

%if %symexist(config_root) %then %do;
  filename config "&config_root./config.json";
  libname config json fileref=config;
  data _null_;
   set config.root;
   call symputx('tenant_id',tenant_id,'G');
   call symputx('client_id',client_id,'G');
   call symputx('redirect_uri',redirect_uri,'G');
   call symputx('resource',resource,'G');
  run;
%end;
%else %do;
  %put ERROR: You must define the CONFIG_ROOT macro variable.; 
%end;

Read more here: Using %IF/%THEN/%ELSE in SAS programs.

A legacy in the making

I'm going to miss having Rick Langston as a SAS colleague. There aren't many other people who know how to spin up a version of SAS from 30 years ago to help me track down a curious question. However, I'm not worried about the future of the SAS language. Rick has been excellent about sharing his knowledge for decades (just check his annual contributions to SAS Global Forum), and his team is well-suited to carry on the work of extending the SAS programming language for the next generation of SAS users. Thanks to Rick for helping to build such a solid foundation.

The post Five SAS programming language features you should be using appeared first on The SAS Dummy.

11月 282018
 
One of the great things about programming with SAS® software is that there are many ways to accomplish the same task. And, since SAS often adds new features that can make a task easier, it's important to stay informed.

This blog shows a few samples of graphs and explains how you can use new functionality to make the old graphs look new again. Over the past several releases, SAS has added more options and procedures for ODS Graphics. While your tried-and-true SAS/GRAPH programs still work, ODS Graphics can create modern-looking graphs with less code, while providing more output options. And, ODS Graphics is part of Base SAS, which means that all of these techniques work in SAS University Edition.

Note: All the graphs in this blog are created using the fifth maintenance release of SAS® 9.4M5 (TS1M5). Not all options are available in prior releases of SAS.

Adding special symbols on a graph

The following graph is created with the DATA Step Graphics Interface (DSGI), which draws the horizontal bars and airplanes as well as places the text.

However, the DSGI is not supported in releases after SAS® 9.3. In SAS 9.4 and later, you can create a similar graph using the SYMBOLCHAR statement in the SGPLOT procedure. Using this statement in PROC SGPLOT references the hexadecimal value for the airplane symbol, as shown below:

To create this graph with PROC SGPLOT, submit the following code:

data planes;
   input month $ number;
   xval2=number + 2000;
   low=0;
   format number comma8.;
   cards;
Jan 13399
Feb 13284
Mar 14725
Apr 15370
May 16252
Jun 15684
Jul 15313
Aug 16005
;
title1 height=14pt 'Number of Flights at Raleigh Durham International Airport';
title2 height=14pt 'By Month for 2018';
footnote1 height=12pt 'Source: Federal Aviation Administration TFMSC Report (Airport)';
 
 
 
proc sgplot data=planes noautolegend noborder;
hbarbasic month / response=number fillattrs=(color=graydd) nooutline
barwidth=0.5 baselineattrs=(thickness=0px);
symbolchar name=airplane char='2708'x / hoffset=0.3 voffset=0.05;
scatter x=number y=month /markerattrs=(symbol=airplane size=60px
color=black);
scatter x=xval2 y=month / markerchar=number markercharattrs=(size=14pt);
xaxis offsetmin=0 display=none;
yaxis display=(noline noticks nolabel) valueattrs=(size=14pt)
offsetmin=0.025 offsetmax=0.025;
run;

For information about PROC SGPLOT, see SGPLOT Procedure in SAS® 9.4 ODS Graphics: Procedures Guide, Sixth Edition.

For more information about the SYMBOLCHAR statement, see the section "SYMBOLCHAR Statement" in the "SGPLOT Procedure" chapter of SAS® 9.4 ODS Graphics: Procedures Guide, Sixth Edition.

Assigning colors to data values

The next example graphs show the results for a fictitious ice-cream flavor survey. Because not all the ice cream flavors are present in each survey group, macro code is used to conditionally define the PATTERN statements based on the values in the data.

You can achieve the same more easily by using attribute maps in PROC SGPLOT to associate the attributes, such as color, with data values so that the same color is always associated with the same data value. The following graph, which is similar to the one above, is created using this method:

To create this graph, submit the following code:

/* Create the input data set ICECREAM */
data icecream;
   input @1 Flavor $10. @12 Rank 1. @14 GRP $1.;
   datalines;
Strawberry 2 B
Chocolate  1 B
Vanilla    3 B
Strawberry 2 A
Vanilla    1 A
;
run;
 
proc sort;
by grp;
run;
 
data attrmap;
id='barcolors';
length value fillcolor linecolor $10;
input value $ fillcolor $;
linecolor=fillcolor;
datalines;
Strawberry pink
Chocolate CX7B3F00
Vanilla beige
;
run;
options nobyline;
title "Ice Cream Survey for Group #byval(grp)";
 
proc sgplot data=icecream dattrmap=attrmap noautolegend;
by grp;
vbar flavor / response=rank group=flavor attrid=barcolors dataskin=pressed;
run;

I changed the colors for the bars in the PROC SGPLOT code so that the bar colors look more like the ice cream that they represent. I also added the DATASKIN= option for the bars to enhance the visual appeal of the bars in the graph.

For more information about attribute maps, see the section Using Attribute Maps to Control Visual Attributes in the SAS® 9.4 ODS Graphics: Procedures Guide, Sixth Edition.

Combining BY-group graphs into a single page

The following graph shows two plots that are created by using PROC GPLOT with a BY statement. The graphs are then paneled side-by-side with the GREPLAY procedure.

You can use the SGPANEL procedure to create the same plots in side-by-side panels. The benefit to this method is that you need only one procedure both to create the plots and to panel them, as shown below:

To create these paneled plots, submit the following code:

proc sgpanel data=sashelp.class;
panelby sex / novarname rows=1 columns=2;
scatter x=age y=height;
run;

Placing symbols and labels on a map

The next graph uses the Annotate facility with the SAS/GRAPH GMAP and GPROJECT procedures to place a symbol and city name at the location of select cities in North Carolina.

Beginning with the fifth maintenance release of SAS 9.4M5 (TS1M5) in 64-bit Windows and 64-bit Linux operating environments, you can use the SGMAP procedure to create such maps. Using this method, you can create maps that show much more detail.

You can use PROC SGMAP with the OPENSTREETMAP, SCATTER, and TEXT statements to create a similar graph, as shown below:

To create this map, submit the following code:

data cities;
input y x city $20.;
cards;
35.6125 -77.36667 Greenville 
36.21667 -81.67472 Boone
35.913064 -79.056112 Chapel Hill
;
run;
 
data dummy;
input y2 x2;
datalines;
33.857977 -84.321869
36.548759 -75.460423
;
 
data cities;
set cities dummy;
run;
title1 h=10pt 'Place points on a map at city locations';
 
proc sgmap plotdata=cities;
openstreetmap;
scatter x=x y=y / markerattrs=(color=red size=10px symbol=circlefilled);
scatter x=x2 y=y2 / markerattrs=(size=0px);
text x=x y=y text=city / textattrs=(size=10pt) position=right;
run;

Because the OPENSTREETMAP statement is used in PROC SGMAP, more detail (for example, cities and roads) is included in the map.

The DUMMY data set adds coordinates to the points that are plotted to modify the display area of the map.

For more information about controlling the display area of the map, see the article How to Control Map Display Area with PROC SGMAP.

For more information about PROC SGMAP, see the SGMAP Procedure chapter in SAS/GRAPH® and Base SAS® 9.4: Mapping Reference.

See also

Many of these features have been covered in more depth within other blog articles. Visit these articles to learn more!
Examples of adding special symbols in your charts using the SYMBOLCHAR statement
Using the new SGMAP procedure to create maps in Base SAS
Adding data-driven features to your charts with ATTRS options
Controlling your graph appearance with DATASKIN and FILLTYPE options

Making great graphs even better with ODS Graphics was published on SAS Users.

8月 092018
 

Recently I’ve been listening to the BBC Radio Series 50 Things That Made the Modern Economy, which was first broadcast in 2016. One of the episodes considers the impact of a simple box (the shipping container) and concludes its invention was a major contributor to the post-war boom in global trade. It’s worth a listen, if you can.

Notwithstanding the tenuous link, containerization is having perhaps an equally significant impact on Cloud Computing and I want to share a recent experience which highlights the convenience of containers. I’m not aiming to summarize all the multiple SAS initiatives in the Cloud (including SAS Viya and Cloud Foundry) here rather it’s to share a few observations about a specific offering for SAS 9.4.

Recently I attended a demonstration by SAS’ Doug Liming on SAS Analytics for Containers. While this product was launched in 2016, until now I confess I’d not appreciated its simplicity or potential. I’d like to use this blog post to share what I saw & learned because this session served as a bit of an epiphany for me.

As a reminder SAS Analytics for Containers consists of:

    • Foundation SAS (Base, STAT & Graph) ready-packaged to be deployed in a Docker container.
    • SAS Studio.
    • Optional SAS/Access connectors & Accelerators.

In the space of 20 minutes, Doug took us through the The power and potential of simplicity: SAS 9.4 and Containers was published on SAS Users.

6月 222018
 

As a follow up to my previous blog, I want to address connecting to SAS Viya 3.3 using a One-Time-Password generated by SAS 9.4. I will talk about how this authentication flow operates and when we are likely to require it.

To start with, a One-Time-Password is generated by a SAS 9.4 Metadata Server when we connect to a resource via the metadata. For example, whenever we connect to the SAS 9.4 Stored Process Server we leverage a One-Time-Password. Sometimes this is referred to as a “trusted connection,” in that the resource we are connecting to is configured to “trust” the single-use credential generated by the SAS 9.4 Metadata Server.

To make the connection, the client application connects to the SAS 9.4 Metadata Server and requests the One-Time-Password (OTP). This OTP is sent by the client to the resource along with the username that has “@!*(generatedpassworddomain)*!” appended to it. The resource then connects back to the SAS 9.4 Metadata Server to validate the OTP and allow access.

What Does OTP mean for SAS Viya?

First and foremost, we cannot use the OTP to access the SAS Viya 3.3 Visual Interfaces. OTP is not a mechanism to allow SAS Viya 3.3 to be authenticated by SAS 9.4.

The One-Time-Password enables a process running in SAS 9.4 Maintenance 5 (M5), that does not have the end-user credentials, to access SAS Cloud Analytic Services running on SAS Viya 3.3. The easiest and clearest example is that a SAS 9.4 M5 Stored Process can now access the advanced analytics features of SAS Cloud Analytic Services. Equally, the same process would work with a SAS 9.4 M5 Workspace Server that has been configured for “trusted authentication,” where the operating system process runs as a launch credential rather than the end user.

How Does the OTP Work?

If we continue the example of a SAS 9.4 M5 Stored Process, the SAS code in the Stored Process includes a CAS statement or CAS LIBNAME. In the CAS statement the authdomain is specified as _sasmeta_; this tells the Stored Process to connect to SAS 9.4 M5 Metadata to obtain credentials. The SAS 9.4 M5 Metadata returns a One-Time-Password to the Stored Process and this is used in the connection to SAS Cloud Analytic Services.

SAS Cloud Analytic Services authenticates the incoming connection using the OTP. Since the user is flagged with “@!*(generatedpassworddomain)*!” SAS Cloud Analytic Services knows not to authenticate the user against the PAM stack on the host. SAS Cloud Analytic Services instead connects to the SAS Viya 3.3 SAS Logon Manager to obtain an internal OAuth token to authenticate the connection.

The SAS Viya 3.3 SAS Logon Manager has been configured with information about the SAS 9.4 M5 environment, specifically, the host running the SAS Web Infrastructure Platform, in the form of a URL. Since the user is “@!*(generatedpassworddomain)*!”, SAS Viya 3.3 SAS Logon Manager knows to send this to the SAS 9.4 M5 Web Infrastructure Platform to validate the OTP. Once the OTP is validated, the SAS Viya 3.3 Logon Manager can generate an internal OAuth token, including retrieving the end-users group information from the Identities microservice. This internal OAuth token is returned to SAS Cloud Analytic Services and the session launched.

The diagram below describes these steps:

SAS Viya connecting with SAS 9.4

The general steps include:

1.     The SAS 9.4 M5 SAS Server, running with a launch credential (Stored Process, Pooled Workspace, or Workspace Server) requests a One-Time Password from the Metadata Server for the connection to SAS Cloud Analytic Services.
2.     The SAS 9.4 M5 SAS Server connects to the CAS Server Controller, sending the One-Time Password.
3.     The CAS Controller connects to SAS Logon Manager to obtain an internal OAuth token using the One-Time Password.
4.     SAS Logon Manager connects via the SAS 9.4 M5 Middle-Tier to validate the One-Time Password.
5.     SAS 9.4 M5 Middle-Tier connects to the Metadata Server to validate the One-Time Password.
6.     SAS Logon Manager connects to the identities microservice to fetch custom and LDAP group information for the validated End-User.
7.     The identities microservice either looks up the validated End-User in its cache or connects to Active Directory using the LDAP Service Account to update the cache.
8.     SAS Logon Manager returns a valid internal OAuth token to the SAS CAS Server Controller.
9.     SAS CAS Server Controller launches the CAS Session Controller as the service account for the End-User.

Note that none of the processes are running as the end-user. The SAS 9.4 process is running with a launch credential, either sassrv or some other account, whilehe SAS Cloud Analytic Services session runs as the account starting the SAS Cloud Analytic Services process, by default the CAS account.

What do we need to configure?

Now that we understand how the process operates, we can look at what we need to configure to make this work correctly. We need to make changes on both the SAS 9.4 M5 side and the SAS Viya 3.3 side. For SAS 9.4 M5 we need to:

1.     Register the SAS CAS Server in Metadata. As of SAS 9.4 M5, the templates for adding a server include SAS Cloud Analytic Services.
2.     Optionally we might also register libraries against the SAS CAS Server in the SAS 9.4 M5 Metadata.

For SAS Viya 3.3 we need to:

1.     Configure SAS Logon Manager with the information about the SAS 9.4 M5 Web Infrastructure Platform, under sas.logon.sas9, as shown below.
2.     Ensure the usernames from SAS 9.4 M5 are the same as those returned by the SAS Identities microservice.

The SAS Viya 3.3 SAS Logon Manager will need to be restarted after adding the definition shown here:

Conclusion

By leveraging the One-Time-Password, we make the power of SAS Cloud Analytic Services directly available to a wider range of SAS 9.4 M5 server process. This means our end-users, whether they are using SAS Stored Process Server, Pooled Workspace Server, or even a Workspace Server using a launched credential, can now directly access SAS Cloud Analytic Services.

SAS Viya connecting with SAS 9.4 One-Time-Passwords was published on SAS Users.

6月 192018
 

When making a new piece of code, I like to use the smallest font I can read. This lets me fit more text on the screen at once. When presenting code to others, especially in a classroom setting, I like to make the font large enough to see from the back of the room. Here’s how I change font size in SAS in our three programming interfaces.

The post Changing font size in SAS appeared first on SAS Learning Post.

3月 012018
 

Let’s say that you are administering a SAS 9.4 environment that is working just fine. You’ve checked that your full backups are indeed happening and you’ve even tried restoring from one of your backups. You are prepared for anything, right? Well, I’d like to propose a scenario to you. You probably have users responsible for creating reports, maybe even very important reports. What if something happened to one of these reports? Perhaps the user wants to revert to an earlier version. Perhaps the report was accidentally deleted or even corrupted, what then? Restoring a full backup in this situation might help this one user but would likely inconvenience most other users. With a little more preparation, you could “magically” restore a single report if needed. Here’s what you need to do: create a backup of only these critical reports using the promotion tools.

The promotion tools include:

  • the Export SAS Package Wizard and the Import SAS Package Wizard available in SAS Management Console, SAS Data Integration Studio, and SAS OLAP Cube Studio.
  • the batch export tool and the batch import tool.

Note: Starting with the third maintenance of SAS 9.4, you can use the -disableX11 option to run the batch import and batch export tools on UNIX without setting the DISPLAY variable.

You can use the promotion tools on almost anything found in the SAS Folder tree, especially if you use SAS Management Console. If you use the wizards in SAS Data Integration Studio or SAS OLAP Cube Studio, those applications only allow you to access and export/import objects that pertain to that application, a subset of what is available in SAS Management Console.

You may be thinking that using an interactive wizard is not really the answer you are looking for and you may be right. The batch tools are a great solution if you want to schedule the exporting of some objects on a regular basis. If you are unfamiliar with the promotion tools, I would suggest you start with the interactive wizards. You will find that the log produced by the wizard includes the equivalent command line you would use. It’s a nice way to explore how to invoke the batch tools.

Creating the Export Package

How to invoke the Export SAS Package Wizard:

1.  Right-click on a folder or object in the SAS Folders tree and select Export SAS Package.

Selectively backing up metadata

2.  Enter the location and name of the package file to be created and set options as appropriate.

You can opt to Include dependent objects when retrieving initial collection of objects here or you can select specific dependent objects on the next screen.

Filtering offers some very interesting ways of selecting objects including:

  • By object name
  • By object type
  • By when objects were created
  • By when objects were last modified

3.  Select the objects to export. If you started the process with a folder, you will be presented with the folder and all of its contents selected by default. You can deselect specific objects as you like.

In this example, we only want the Marketing folder and its contents. Deselect the other folders. You want to be careful to not create a package file that is too big.

You can click on individual objects and explore what dependencies the object has, what other metadata objects use the current object, options and properties for the object.

In this example, the Marketing Unit Report is dependent on the MEGACORP table whose metadata is found in the /Shared Data/LASR Data folder. When you import this report, you will need to associate the report with the same or similar table in order for the report to be fully functional.

If you had selected Include dependent objects when retrieving initial collection of objects on the previous screen, all of the dependent objects would be listed and be selected for export by default.

Bonus things you get by default in the export package include:

  • Permissions set directly on the objects
  • For most object types, the export tools include both metadata and the associated physical content. For example, with reports you get both the metadata and associated report XML. For a complete list of physical content promoted with metadata objects, refer to:

    5.  When the export process is complete (hopefully without errors) review the log.

    At the top of the log, you can see the location of the log file in case you want to refer to it later.

    If you scroll to the end of the log, you’ll find the command line to invoke the batch export tool to create the same package.

    Considerations for Exporting

    Importing to the Rescue

    Let’s talk about what happens if and when you actually need to import some or all of the objects in a package file.
    Let’s take a look at what we would need to do to replace an accidentally deleted report, Marketing Unit Report.

    How to invoke the Import SAS Package Wizard:

    5.  Right-click on the same folder you started the export, SAS Folders folder in our example, and select Import SAS Package. It is important to initiate the import from the same folder you started the export if you want to end up with the same folder structure.

    6.  If needed, use the Browse functionality to locate the correct package file.

    Include access controls

    By default, Include access controls is not selected. This option will import permission settings directly applied to the objects in the package. It will not import any permissions if there were only inherited permissions on the object in the source environment.

    Since we are bringing the report back into the folder it originally came from, it makes sense to also include direct permissions, if there were any.

    If you do not check the Include access controls box and there are in face some direct permissions on objects being imported, you will get this warning later in the wizard:

    Select objects to import

    If you’re not sure whether to select to import All objects or New objects only, you can always start with all objects. You can use the Back buttons in the wizard to go back to previous prompts and change selections, at least before you kick off the actual import process.

    7.  If you selected import all objects on the first screen, you will see a listing of all objects. Each object will have an icon indicating if the object currently exists where you are doing the import or not. The red exclamation mark indicates the object currently exists and doing the import of this object will overwrite the current object with the copy from the package. The asterisk icon indicates that the object does not currently exist and will be created by the import process.

    In our example, the Marketing Unit Report does not currently exist in the Marketing folder but is in the package file so it is labeled with an asterisk. The other two reports are both in the folder and the package file so they are labeled with red exclamation marks.

    You’ll want to make the appropriate selections here. If you want all of the contents of the package to be written to the Marketing folder, overwriting the first two reports and adding the Marketing Unit Report, leave all objects selected. If one of the reports had become corrupted, you could use this method to overwrite the current copy with the version stored in the package file.

    If you just want to replace the missing Marketing Unit Report, make sure only that object is selected as below:

    By default, objects are imported into the same folder structure they were in when the export package was created.

    8.  Part of the import process is to establish associations between the objects you are importing and metadata not included in the package. You are first presented with a list of the metadata values you will need to select.

    9.  Set the target value(s) as needed.

    In our example, we definitely want the report to use the same table it used originally.
    If we were moving objects to a new folder or a new environment, you might want to associate the report with a different table.

    If you use the batch import tool, changing these associations would be done in a substitution properties file.

    10.  Review the import summary and initiate the import process.

    11.  Hopefully, the process completes without errors and you can review the log.

    12.  Finish things off by testing the content you imported. In this case, we would log in to SAS Visual Analytics and view the Marketing Unit Report.

    Considerations for Importing

    • If you initiated the export from the SAS Folders folder and try to import the package from another folder, Marketing for example, the wizard will recreate everything in the package, including a new Marketing subfolder which is probably not what you intended.

    Notice the new Marketing folder inside the current Marketing folder. In addition, all three reports are considered new since the new Marketing subfolder does not currently exist.

    • The account you use to do the import should have enough access to metadata and the operating system.

    Next Steps

    • Decide what you want to export, how often, and how long you want to keep a specific package file.
    • Once you’ve gotten comfortable with the wizards and you want to schedule an export (or several), you should try out the batch export and import tools. When you name the export package, you can consider customizing the package name to include the date to avoid overwriting the same package file each time.

    Review the documentation on both the wizards and batch tools in the Admin Notebook: Making the case for selectively backing up metadata was published on SAS Users.

10月 192017
 

The goal of this article is to describe the steps needed to configure the bridge that allows SAS Data Integration 4.902, based on SAS 9.4M4, to load data directly into CAS on SAS Viya 3.2.

Of course, SAS 9.4M5 simplifies this process, as a SAS/CONNECT communication will no longer be required, enabled by a direct function within SAS Data Integration to CAS - but for those of you who may not move immediately from SAS 9.4M4 to SAS 9.4M5, this could be helpful.

It is assumed here that SAS/CONNECT has been installed and configured on both environments, SAS 9.4M4 and SAS Viya 3.2.

Validate the connection from SAS 9.4M4 to SAS Viya 3.2

⇒     Check the status of the SAS/CONNECT Spawner on SAS Viya, on the machine where this service is installed.

SAS Viya 3.2 Bridge for SAS Data Integration Studio

⇒     Note the machine and the listening port of the SAS/CONNECT Spawner on SAS Viya.
⇒     Open SAS Studio on SAS 9.4M4 and sign-in.
⇒     Run the following SAS code with your machine details and a valid SAS Viya user account and check the results.

SAS Viya 3.2 Bridge for SAS Data Integration Studio

⇒     If successful, sign-off the SAS/CONNECT session and sign-out from SAS Studio SAS 9.4M4

Setup SAS9.4M4 metadata

⇒     Open SAS Management Console 9.4M4 as sasadm@saspw.
⇒     On the “Server Manager” plugin, add a “New Server…”

  • Server type: “SAS Application Server”
  • Name: “SASViya”
  • Select “Connect Server” as the sub-type of server you want to add to this SAS Application Server
  • Configure the “Connect Server” as shown below (you might have to create a new authentication domain for SAS Viya) and set the values accordingly (server where the SAS/CONNECT Spawner on SAS Viya is listening)

⇒     On the “Server Manager” plugin, add a “New Server…”

  • Server type: “SAS Cloud Analytic Services Server”
  • Name: “CAS Server”
  • Configure the “CAS Server” as shown below and set the values accordingly (CAS controller)

⇒     On the “User Manager” plugin, set a login for the SASViya application server, on a user or group that you will use in SAS Data Integration Studio

⇒     On the “Data Library Manager” plugin, add a “New Library…”

  • Library type: “SAS Cloud Analytic Services Library”
  • Name: CAS_DATA
  • Assign the library to the SASViya server

⇒     Configure the CAS library as shown below and set the values accordingly (the CASLIB must exist in the SAS Viya environment; here CASPATH is the name of an existing CASLIB).

⇒     Specify the server and connection information as shown below:

Build a SAS Data Integration Studio job to load data into CAS

⇒     Open SAS Data Integration Studio 4.902 as a user who holds, directly or not, a login for the ViyaAuth authentication domain.
⇒     Test the CAS_DATA library by “Register(ing) tables…”

  • In SAS Environment Manager on SAS Viya, some tables must have been loaded before into the CASLIB (the one that is pointed on by the CAS library, here CASPATH), so that you can display some tables in the “Register Tables…” wizard.
  • If you see some tables then it looks like you are all set.

⇒     If you want to go further and test the “Cloud Analytic Services Transfer” DI transformation, create the metadata for a target table in CAS with appropriate columns.

⇒     Build a job that loads a source table to this target table using the “Cloud Analytic Services Transfer” (“Access” folder) as shown below:

⇒     The “Cloud Analytic Services Transfer” is basically a “Data Transfer” transformation that fits with CAS; it enables you to provide some CAS options such as COPIES; by default the table is PROMOTED.

⇒     Run it and check if it ran successfully and if the table is available from the SAS Viya world.

SAS/CONNECT on SAS Viya configuration directory

⇒     The SAS/CONNECT on SAS Viya configuration is located by default here /opt/sas/viya/config/etc/connectserver/default

⇒     You might want to customize/clean some of the files here.

  • Check the CASHOST option in autoexec files, sometimes the value is not appropriate.

Normally, options here are sourced from the CONNECTSERVER_CONFIGURATION in vars.yml during the deployment of SAS Viya.

SAS Viya 3.2 Bridge for SAS Data Integration Studio 4.902 (on SAS 9.4M4) configuration steps was published on SAS Users.

10月 102017
 

Remember when 100MB was large?

SAS 9.4 Maintenance 5 includes new support for reading and writing GZIP files directly. GZIP files, usually found with a .gz file extension, are a different format than ZIP files. Although both are forms of compressed files, a GZIP file is usually a compressed copy of a single file, whereas a ZIP file is an "archive" -- a collection of files in a compressed virtual folder. GZIP tools are built into Unix/Linux platforms and are commonly used to save space when storing large text-based files that you're not ready to part with: log files, csv files, and more. The algorithm used to compress GZIP files performs especially well with text files, although you can technically GZIP any file that you want.

I've written extensively about using FILENAME ZIP to read and write ZIP archives with SAS. The latest version of filename my_gz ZIP "path-to-file/compressedfile.txt.gz" GZIP;

Here's an example that creates a compressed version of a log file:

filename source "C:\Logs\SEGuide_log.10168.txt";
filename tozip ZIP "C:\Logs\SEGuide_log.10168.txt.gz" GZIP;
 
data _null_;   
   infile source;
   file tozip ;
   input;
   put _infile_ ;
run;

In my test here, the result represents a significant size difference, with the compressed file occupying just 14% of the space.


To "re-inflate" the compressed file, we can perform the opposite operation. (I added the ENCODING option here because I know my log file was UTF-8 encoded.)

filename target "C:\LogsExpanded\SEGuide_log.10168.txt" encoding='utf-8';
filename fromzip ZIP "C:\Logs\SEGuide_log.10168.txt.gz" GZIP;
 
data _null_;   
   infile fromzip;
   file target ;
   input;
   put _infile_ ;
run;

You don't have to explicitly expand a compressed text file in order to read it with SAS. You can use the GZIP method to read and parse a .gz file directly, similar to the zcat command that you might be familiar with from the Unix shell:

filename fromzip ZIP "C:\Logs\SEGuide_log.10168.txt.gz" GZIP;
data logdata;   
   infile fromzip; /* read directly from compressed file */
   input  date : yymmdd10. time : anydttme. ;
   format date date9. time timeampm.;
run;

If your file is in a binary format such as a SAS data set (sas7bdat) or Excel (XLS or XLSX), you probably will need to expand the file completely before reading it as data. These files are read using special drivers that don't process the bytes sequentially, so you need the entire file available on disk.

Note: Because each GZIP file represents just one compressed file, the MEMBER= option doesn't apply. When dealing with ZIP file archives that contain multiple files, you could use the MEMBER= option on FILENAME ZIP to address a specific file that you want. My recent example about FINFO and file details relies heavily on that approach. However, the GZIP option and MEMBER= options are mutually exclusive. In that way, it's much simpler...just like its Unix shell equivalent.


* ZIP drive image By © Raimond Spekking / CC BY-SA 4.0 (via Wikimedia Commons), CC BY-SA 4.0, Link

The post Reading and writing GZIP files with SAS appeared first on The SAS Dummy.

8月 182017
 

If you are a SAS administrator managing an environment on UNIX or z/OS, you must use the sas.servers script on a regular basis. As you know, one of its uses is to display the current status of all servers. Is the output accurate? Absolutely. Is it easy to read? Relatively. Is it visually attractive? Not so much.

Human beings are visual creatures. Conventional wisdom says that a picture speaks a thousand words. However, I am not using images to improve the output, but another powerful tool: color. According to this Xerox paper, color captures attention and enhances productivity. It can improve search time, reduce errors, and increase comprehension. As a result, this blog post provides the steps for applying color and an easy-to-read layout to make the sas.servers script look cute and even fun!

Preliminary Steps

Before we begin, it is important to give you some recommendations:

  1. Stop all SAS services.
  2. Backup the files: sas.servers, sas.servers.mid and sas.servers.pre
  3. Apply these changes to a Development or Testing environment.

As a matter of fact, I consider steps 1 and 3 as optional. This script is only used by the SAS platform to start/stop/restart or check the status of the servers. Moreover, if you follow all steps carefully, you can apply these changes safely in a Production environment. In contrast, step 2 is relevant; it is always a good practice to backup essential files before modifying them. In case you need to rollback, you can restore them easily and quickly.

Things to Consider

The About the sas.servers Script section from the SAS 9.4 Intelligence Platform: System Administration Guide provides a caution message: "You should not directly update the sas.servers script." In our case, the type of customization we are about to perform requires a manual update. Don't worry, your script is in good hands.

Furthermore, if you ever need to update the sas.servers script because you want to add/remove a server, you have to run the generate_boot_scripts.sh script to regenerate this file. After doing so, you can lose all the changes made in this post. Keep this in mind, so you can backup the current files before attempting this task.

Easy-to-read Layout

Let's jump into the details. First of all, let's define the new layout of the desired output. Grab your favorite text editor. I use Notepad++ at the office, and Sublime Text at home. Go to your /SASCONFIG/Lev1/ directory and run a regular status command as the sas user. Assuming you followed the preliminary steps and depending on the products installed and the number of SASServers deployed, you should get a similar output:

./sas.servers status
SAS servers status:
SAS Web Infrastructure Data Server is NOT up
SAS Metadata Server 1 is NOT up
SAS Object Spawner 1 is NOT up
SAS DIP Job Runner 1 is NOT up
SAS Information Retrieval Studio Server is NOT up
SAS JMS Broker is NOT up
SAS Cache Locator Service ins_41415 is NOT up
SAS Web Server is NOT up
SAS Web App Server SASServer1_1 is NOT up
SAS Environment Manager is NOT up
SAS Environment Manager Agent is NOT up

Copy that output, except the first line, and paste it into your text editor. Here you can modify the output according to your taste. What I did was to identify the longest line, which is SAS Information Retrieval Studio Server, then I added four spaces to the right and substituted the legend is NOT up for [DOWN]. Likewise, I applied these changes to the rest of the servers, removed the instance number, and kept them all aligned:

SAS Web Infrastructure Data Server         [DOWN]
SAS Metadata Server                        [DOWN]
SAS Object Spawner                         [DOWN]
SAS DIP Job Runner                         [DOWN]
SAS Information Retrieval Studio Server    [DOWN]
SAS JMS Broker                             [DOWN]
SAS Cache Locator Service ins_41415        [DOWN]
SAS Web Server                             [DOWN]
SAS Web App Server SASServer1_1            [DOWN]
SAS Environment Manager                    [DOWN]
SAS Environment Manager Agent              [DOWN]

I chose the pair [ UP ]/[DOWN] to reflect the status because I wanted the look and feel from CentOS 6 boot process. If you are/were a CentOS 6 user, you can remember that the services display the legends: [ OK ] or [FAILED] when booting. You are free to use other alternatives such as ACTIVE/INACTIVE or perhaps RUNNING/STOPPED with or without brackets. Now that the layout is finished, let's move on to the color department.

All You Need Is Color

The fun finally arrived. Let's integrate the layout into our three scripts and add the main ingredient: color!

Again, I am assuming at this stage that you already backed up the files: sas.servers, sas.servers.mid, and sas.servers.pre. Next, open the sas.servers file with your vi editor and add this code anywhere at the top, below the block of comments:

#*****
# Custom Colors for status command
# RED   for [DOWN]
# GREEN for [ UP ]
# NC    for No Color
#*****
RED='\e[31m'
GREEN='\e[32m'
NC='\e[0m'

These lines create three variables with three different color codes: a RED variable with code 31, a GREEN variable with code 32, and a NC variable with the default color code. The definition of these variables is optional but recommended, since they help you debug problems or change colors more easily. If you prefer to use different colors or attributes, you can play with the codes as shown in Bash tips: Colors and formatting.

Considering that the sas.servers script does not contain all servers, you have to add the same code to sas.servers.mid and sas.servers.pre files.

First Example

Now that we have defined the three variables in all the necessary files, let's use them. I'll show you how to apply them to a couple of servers, and then you can replicate it to the rest. The first one is the SAS Metadata Server. Open the sas.servers script again and find these lines:

# SAS Metadata Server
SASMETA_WONT_START_OTHERS="The remaining SAS servers will NOT be started as a result."
 
SASMETA1_IS_UP="SAS Metadata Server 1 is UP"
SASMETA2_IS_UP="SAS Metadata Server 2 is UP"
SASMETA3_IS_UP="SAS Metadata Server 3 is UP"
SASMETA4_IS_UP="SAS Metadata Server 4 is UP"
SASMETA5_IS_UP="SAS Metadata Server 5 is UP"
 
SASMETA1_IS_DOWN="SAS Metadata Server 1 is NOT up"
SASMETA2_IS_DOWN="SAS Metadata Server 2 is NOT up"
SASMETA3_IS_DOWN="SAS Metadata Server 3 is NOT up"
SASMETA4_IS_DOWN="SAS Metadata Server 4 is NOT up"
SASMETA5_IS_DOWN="SAS Metadata Server 5 is NOT up"

Since I have a single Metadata Server instance, the only meaningful variables are SASMETA1_IS_UP and SASMETA1_IS_DOWN. Delete their values, copy the correct string from your text editor, and paste it in both variables. Fix them accordingly:

SASMETA1_IS_UP="SAS Metadata Server                        [ UP ]"
#more instances
 
SASMETA1_IS_DOWN="SAS Metadata Server                        [DOWN]"
#more instances

The final touch is to give color to our script. Use the GREEN and RED variables for the UP/DOWN statuses. It is important to include the NC variable at the end to remove all attributes:

SASMETA1_IS_UP="SAS Metadata Server                        [ ${GREEN}UP${NC} ]"
#more instances
 
SASMETA1_IS_DOWN="SAS Metadata Server                        [${RED}DOWN${NC}]"
#more instances

Second Example

The process is the same for all the servers defined in the sas.servers script. For the other two scripts it is a little different, but still quite easy. I am going to use the SAS Web Infrastructure Data Server as the second example. Open the sas.servers.pre script and look for the server_status() function. Pay attention to these lines:

       if [ $? -eq 0 ]; then
          # Server is already running
          echo "SAS Web Infrastructure Data Server is UP"
       else
          echo "SAS Web Infrastructure Data Server is NOT up"
       fi
    }
    else
      echo "SAS Web Infrastructure Data Server is NOT up"

A subtle difference from the previous example is the echo command. In the sas.servers script, there is a logmsg() function that uses the "echo -e" command behind the scenes. In this case, we have to explicitly add the -e option to enable the interpretation of backslash escapes. Let's also integrate the color and layout:

          echo -e "SAS Web Infrastructure Data Server         [ ${GREEN}UP${NC} ]"
       else
          echo -e "SAS Web Infrastructure Data Server         [${RED}DOWN${NC}]"
       fi
    }
    else
      echo -e "SAS Web Infrastructure Data Server         [${RED}DOWN${NC}]"

At this point, with the above examples, you should have a solid idea about the required changes to accomplish our goal. Now it is your turn to apply them to the rest of the servers.

Finished Product

If you followed this article in detail and performed the steps in all the required servers, your output should resemble mine:

Get the green light by running the start command:

Final Thoughts

I am a visual person with a curious mind. One of the things I like is to customize the tools I use the most, so I decided to make the sas.servers script output a little more attractive to my eyes. I hope you liked the result. If you are still not sure whether to implement this idea or not, let's suppose there are some problems with a couple of servers in your environment and they stop running. Which output would you rather look at? Which one is easier to spot an issue? Let me know your thoughts in the comments below, or even better you can share your creative outputs!

Making the sas.servers script look pretty was published on SAS Users.